Apr 18, · The United States Marine Corps, separate military service within the U.S. Department of the Navy, charged with the provision of marine troops for seizure and defense of advanced bases and with conducting operations on land and in the air incident to naval campaigns. It is also responsible for providing detachments for service aboard certain types of naval vessels, as well as . The Marine Corps’ principal warfighting organization during large crises is the Marine expeditionary force. The Corps has three MEFs, and each is made up of ground, air and logistics forces.
Department of the Navycharged with the provision of marine troops for seizure and defense of advanced bases and with conducting operations on land and in the air incident to naval campaigns. It is also responsible for providing detachments for service aboard certain types of naval vessels, as well as security forces for naval shore installations and U.
The corps specializes in amphibious landings, such as those undertaken against Japanese-held islands in the Pacific during World War II. The Marine Corps was founded on November 10,when the Continental Congress ordered that two battalions of Marines be raised for service as landing forces with the fleet. Marines have participated in all wars of the United Cropsbeing in most instances how to fix a scroller on a blackberry curve 8520, or among the first, to fight.
In addition, Marines have executed more than landings on foreign shores and served in how to get attorney fees paid major U. The U. Marine Corps is structured according to the National Security Act of and its amendments of The commandant of the corps has what is us marine corps status with members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in all matters pertaining to the corps.
The Marine Corps emblem is the Western Hemisphere superimposed on a foul anchor and surmounted by a spread eagle. The official colours of the Corps are scarlet and gold, but forest green enjoys semiofficial recognition. The distinctive dress-blue uniform of Marines, with its standing collar, is well known. In naval formations, Marines have the privilege of forming on the right of line or at the head of column, the traditional places of honour and seniority.
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Marines landing on Guadalcanal, August Marines in training, Parris Island, S. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Marune More in these related Britannica articles:. The United States claimed that its action was justified under the Monroe Doctrine the right of the United States to prevent European intervention in the Western Hemisphere corls well as on humanitarian grounds.
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Marine Corps Purpose
United States Marines are a family that fights together, finding individual purpose in a collective cause—the protection of our Nation and the advancement of its ideals. Side by side, we welcome obstacles and thrive on challenge. Each Marine stands as a vital part of a united force, greater than any individual, more fulfilled than ever before. The Marine Corps was founded on Nov. 10, , when the Continental Congress ordered two battalions of Marines be created to serve during the Revolutionary War. . To even consider an endeavor of this magnitude is admirable, but just as the Marine Corps may not be right for everyone—not just anyone can be a Marine. To enlist as a Marine, you must obtain your high school diploma and be a legal U.S. resident between 17 and
The United States Marine Corps USMC , also referred to as the United States Marines , is the maritime land force service branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations  through combined arms , implementing its own infantry , armor , artillery , aerial and special operations forces.
The U. Marine Corps is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. The Marine Corps has been part of the U.
Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons, primarily Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are also embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers. The history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore. As outlined in 10 U. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of , and "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of In , the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory — and traditional — functions of the Marine Corps".
It noted that the Corps has more often than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli , the War of , Chapultepec , and numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties such as those in Central America, World War I , and the Korean War. While these actions are not accurately described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests.
By authority of the Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies , legations , and consulates at more than posts worldwide. The relationship between the Department of State and the U. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the Corps itself. For over years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II , an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, and legations throughout the world.
In , a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnishes Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December , and 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions.
During the first year of the program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide. The Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny ; to the latter end, their quarters on the ship were often strategically positioned between the officers' quarters and the rest of the vessel.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March as the Marines gained control of Fort Montagu and Fort Nassau , a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence , the Bahamas.
The role of the Marine Corps has expanded significantly since then; as the importance of its original naval mission declined with changing naval warfare doctrine and the professionalization of the naval service, the Corps adapted by focusing on formerly secondary missions ashore.
The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, battleships and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security.
Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran expedition of , and continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries. Marines developed tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II. They often were assigned to man anti-aircraft batteries. In ,  President Harry Truman responded to a message from U. Representative Gordon L. President Truman, writing in a letter addressed to McDonough, stated that "The Marine Corps is the Navy's police force and as long as I am President that is what it will remain.
They have a propaganda machine that is almost equal to Stalin's. Congressmen and Marine organizations reacted, calling President Truman's remarks an insult and demanded an apology. Truman apologized to the Marine commandant at the time, writing, "I sincerely regret the unfortunate choice of language which I used in my letter of August 29 to Congressman McDonough concerning the Marine Corps.
He made amends only by making a surprise visit to the Marine Corps League a few days later, when he reiterated, "When I make a mistake, I try to correct it. I try to make as few as possible.
When gun cruisers were retired by the s, the remaining Marine detachments were only seen on battleships and carriers. Its original mission of providing shipboard security ended in the s. The Marine Corps fulfills a critical military role as an amphibious warfare force. It is capable of asymmetric warfare with conventional , irregular , and hybrid forces.
While the Marine Corps does not employ any unique capabilities, as a force it can rapidly deploy a combined-arms task force to almost anywhere in the world within days. The basic structure for all deployed units is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force MAGTF that integrates a ground combat element , an aviation combat element and a logistics combat element under a common command element. While the creation of joint commands under the Goldwater—Nichols Act has improved inter-service coordination between each branch, the Corps' ability to permanently maintain integrated multi-element task forces under a single command provides a smoother implementation of combined-arms warfare principles.
The close integration of disparate Marine units stems from an organizational culture centered on the infantry. Every other Marine capability exists to support the infantry. Unlike some Western militaries, the Corps remained conservative against theories proclaiming the ability of new weapons to win wars independently. For example, Marine aviation has always been focused on close air support and has remained largely uninfluenced by air power theories proclaiming that strategic bombing can single-handedly win wars.
This focus on the infantry is matched with the doctrine of "Every Marine [is] a rifleman", a precept of Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr. All Marines, regardless of military specialization, receive training as a rifleman ; and all officers receive additional training as infantry platoon commanders. The amphibious assault techniques developed for World War II evolved, with the addition of air assault and maneuver warfare doctrine, into the current " Operational Maneuver from the Sea " doctrine of power projection from the seas.
In light of recent warfare that has strayed from the Corps' traditional missions,  it has renewed an emphasis on amphibious capabilities.
The Marine Corps relies on the Navy for sealift to provide its rapid deployment capabilities. In addition to basing a third of the Fleet Marine Force in Japan, Marine expeditionary units MEU are typically stationed at sea so they can function as first responders to international incidents.
The USMC is planning to reduce its logistical requirements and by eliminate all liquid fuel use for Marine Expeditionary Forces, except for highly efficient vehicles. Two small manuals published during the s established USMC doctrine in two areas. This date is celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. Nicholas was nominated to lead the Marines by John Adams.
In January , the Marines went to sea under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins and in March undertook their first amphibious landing, the Battle of Nassau in the Bahamas, occupying the British port of Nassau for two weeks.
The Battle of Princeton , where the Marines along with General Cadwalader's brigade were personally rallied by Washington, was the first land combat engagement of the Marines; an estimated Marines were present at the battle.
The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War — against the Barbary pirates ,  when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led 8 Marines and mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli.
Though they only reached Derna , the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' Hymn and the Mameluke sword carried by Marine officers. During the War of , Marine detachments on Navy ships took part in some of the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first and last engagements of the conflict.
Their most significant contribution was holding the center of General Andrew Jackson 's defensive line at the Battle of New Orleans , the final major battle and one of the most one-sided engagements of the war.
The battle of Bladensburg fought 24 August , was one of the worst days for American arms, though a few units and individuals performed heroic service. In all of Marines, 11 were killed and 16 wounded. After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a malaise that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth commandant in Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army.
Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service in the Seminole Wars of , personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps two battalions to war. In fairness to the U. Army, most of the troops who made the final assault at the Halls of Montezuma were soldiers and not Marines. Scott organized two storming parties of about men each for men total including 40 Marines. The Marine Corps played a small role in the Civil War — ; their most prominent task was blockade duty.
As more and more states seceded from the Union , about a third of the Corps' officers left the United States to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps , which ultimately played little part in the war. The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces. It would later be the Army base for bombardment of Fort Pulaski.
The remainder of the 19th century was marked by declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships.
Meanwhile, Marines served as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American interests overseas. The Corps was involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the American Civil War to the end of 19th century. It was during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. Around , the Marines adopted their current motto " Semper fidelis " Always Faithful.
Between and , the Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine—American War , the Boxer Rebellion in China, Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, the Perdicaris incident in Morocco, Veracruz , Santo Domingo , and the Banana Wars in Haiti and Nicaragua ; [ citation needed ] the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual.
Pershing when America entered into the war on 6 April The Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and non-commissioned officers with battle experience and thus experienced a large expansion.
Marine Corps entered the war with officers and 13, enlisted personnel and by 11 November had reached a strength of 2, officers and 70, enlisted.
Nevertheless, the name stuck in U. Marine lore. Lejeune , and under his leadership, the Corps studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War II.
Many officers, including Lieutenant Colonel Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis , foresaw a war in the Pacific with Japan and undertook preparations for such a conflict. Through , as the prospect of war grew, the Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises with the Army and acquired amphibious equipment that would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict.
Some , Americans served in the U. The Battle of Iwo Jima, which began on 19 February , was arguably the most famous Marine engagement of the war.
The Japanese had learned from their defeats in the Marianas Campaign and prepared many fortified positions on the island including pillboxes and network of tunnels. The Japanese put up fierce resistance, but American forces reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on 23 February. The mission was accomplished with high losses of 26, American casualties and 22, Japanese. The Marines played a comparatively minor role in the European theater. Nonetheless, they did continue to provide security detachments to U.